Club de l'Epagneul Breton
des Etats-Unis d'Amerique
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French Brittany Gun Dog Association of America, Inc.

Glossary of Dog Terms
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Abdomen The belly or under surface between the chest and the hindquarters.
Acetabulum The concave lateral portion of the sacrum that articulates with the head of the femur. Anatomically important in evaluating hip dysplasia.
Achondroplasia A form of genetic dwarfism specifically characterized by arrested development of the long bones. A defect in most breeds and a requisite in others (e.g., Dachshunds and Basset Hounds).
Action A term used to describe component functions of locomotion (e.g., action of the hocks) or as a synonym for gait in some standards.
Agility trials An organized competition at which dogs negotiate a series of obstacles and jumps in three classes of increasing difficulty.
Albino A relatively rare, genetically recessive condition resulting in white hair and pink eyes.
All-Breed show Conformation show where all UKC-recognized breeds may be exhibited.
Almond eyes An elongated eye shape, rather than rounded.
Amble A relaxed, easy gait in which the legs on either side move almost, but not quite, as a pair. Often seen as the transition movement between the walk and other faster gaits.
Angulation Angles created by bones meeting at their given joints.
Ankylosis Abnormal immobility and fusion of a joint.
Anterior The front assembly of the body.
Apple head A round-shaped skull.
Apricot Used to describe Afghans, Pugs, Mastiffs, and Poodles, this color is a dull, medium-saturated.
Apron Longer hair below the neck on the chest; also called the frill.
Arm The anatomical region between the shoulder and the elbow. Sometimes called the upper arm.
Armband Number worn on an exhibitor's arm that corresponds to the number in the event catalog and the judge's book. This number is the identifier that links the dog in the ring to that dog's information. The number is also used to associate any points, awards, or placements with the dog's UKC registration number.
Articulation Where two or more bones meet.
Artificial Insemination The introduction of semen into the female reproductive tract by artificial means.
Back The area of a dog's body extending from the withers to the croup.
Bad mouth Crooked teeth; when the mouth is closed, upper and lower teeth do not line up according to the standard of the breed.
Bait The food or object that an exhibitor uses to get a dog's attention or to have it look alert in the ring. The term bait or baiting can also be used to describe the action of getting the dog's attention using food or an object.
Balance When all the parts of the dog, moving or standing, produce a harmonious image.
Bandy legs Legs that bend outward.
Barrel A rib region that is round in cross section.
Barrel hocks Hocks that turn out, causing the feet to toe in. Also called spread hocks.
Bay The prolonged bark or voice of a hunting hound.
Beady Eyes that are small, round, and glittering, imparting an expression foreign to the breed.
Beard Thick, long hair growth on the underjaw.
Beauty spot A distinct spot, usually round, of colored hair, surrounded by the white spot of the blaze, on the topskull between the ears.
Bee-sting tail A relatively short, strong, straight tail that tapers to a point. Used to describe the characteristics of a Pointer's tail.
Belly The under surface of the abdomen.
Belton A color pattern in English Setters (named after a village in England) of light or dark ticking or roaning. Colors include: blue belton (black and white), orange belton (orange and white), lemon belton (lemon and white), and liver belton (liver and white.
Bench show A dog show at which the dogs are kept on assigned benches when not being shown in competition so that interested people can view and learn more about them.
Best in Show At an all-breed show, the only dog left undefeated at the end of all judging on that day.
Best of Breed Dog selected by the judge as the best representative of a particular breed on that day.
Best of Winners The dog judged as best between the Best Male and Best Female.
Biddable Easily taught
Bird dog
A sporting dog bred and trained to hunt game birds.
Bird of prey eyes Light yellowish eyes, usually harsh in outlook.
Bitch A female canine.
Bite The relative position of the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are closed. Bite positions include scissors, level, undershot, or overshot, depending on the breed.
Blanket The color of the coat on the back and upper part of the sides, between the neck and the tail.
Blaze A white stripe running up the center of the face usually between the eyes.
Blinking Briefly pointing a bird and then leaving it, or upon finding a bird, avoiding retrieving it.
Blocky Square or cube-like formation of the head.
Bobtail A dog born without a tail, or a dog with a tail docked very short.

Bodied up Mature, well-developed.
Body length Distance from the prosternum (front portion of the breastbone) to the posterior portion of the pelvic girdle.
Bone A type of connective tissue that forms the canine skeleton. Informally used to suggest a quantitative characteristic of limb bones in proportion to the overall size of the dog.
Bossy Over-development of the shoulder muscles.
Brace (1) Two of the same breed presented together as a pair. (2) Performance: To run dogs together in certain types of field events.
Breeching Fringing of longish hair at the back borders of the thigh regions.
Breed A domestic race of dogs (selected and maintained by man) with a common gene pool and characterized appearance and function.
Breed standards The set of breed descriptions originally laid down by the various parent breed clubs and accepted by official organizations.
Brick-shaped Rectangular.
Brindle A marking pattern used to describe many breeds, usually in conjunction with another color. Layering of black hairs in regions of lighter color (usually, fawn, brown, or gray) producing a tiger-striped pattern. Brindle is often used to describe Great Danes, Bulldogs, and Boxers.
Brisket Chest. Usually refers to the sternum, but in some standards it refers to the entire thorax.
Bronze This color is usually a tinge in a black coat caused by the sun. It is like the color of the metal of the same name.
Brood bitch Female dog (bitch) used for breeding.
Brows The ridges formed above the eyes by frontal bone contours.
Brushing A gaiting fault, when parallel pasterns are so close that the legs brush in passing.
Bull neck A heavy neck, well-muscled.
Burr The inside of the ear; i.e., the irregular formation visible within the cup.
Butterfly A partially unpigmented nose; i.e., dark, spotted with flesh color.
Buttocks The rump or hips.
Button ear A small, neat ear with the flap folding forward, covering the opening of the ear.
Bye At field trials, an odd dog remaining after the dogs entered in a stake have been paired in braces by drawing. Also, a dog out of contention to either run or honor while a working dog completes a test.
Camel back An arched back.
Canines The two upper and two lower large, conical, pointed teeth lateral to the incisors and anterior to the premolars.
Canter A gait with three beats to each stride, two legs moving separately and two as a diagonal pair. Slower than the gallop and not as tiring.
Cap Darkly shaded color pattern on the skull of some breeds.
Carpals Bones of the wrist.
Castrate To remove the testicles of a male dog.
Cat foot Neat, round foot, with high-arched toes held closely together.
Champion (Ch.) A title conferred on a dog by the UKC as a result of being awarded a specified number of major wins at a series of UKC-licensed dog shows.
Character Expression, individuality, and general appearance and deportment as considered typical of a breed.
Cheeky Cheeks prominently rounded; thick, protruding.
Chest The part of the body or trunk that is enclosed by the ribs.
Chestnut A color that may be described as deep, heavily saturated, reddish brown (like the nut of the same name).
China eye A clear or spotted blue, light blue, or whitish eye.
Chippendale front Forelegs out at the elbows, pasterns close, and feet turned out. Also called fiddle front.
Chiseled Clean-cut in head, as contrasted with bumpy or bulging outlines, particularly beneath the eyes.
Chops Jowls or pendulous flesh of the lips and jaw.
Clipping When pertaining to gait, the back foot striking the front foot.
Cloddy Low, thickset, comparatively heavy.
Closing date Month, day, year, and time after which no entry can be accepted for a particular event.
Coat The dog's hair covering. Most breeds have two coats: an outer coat and an undercoat.
Cobby Compact, with a short body.
Condition Health as shown by the coat, skin, general appearance, and behavior.
Conformation The form and structure, make and shape; arrangement of the parts in conformance with breed standards.
Conformation show Dog show  where the dogs are judged on how closely they adhere to the breeds standard.
Congenital Present at birth; may have genetic or environmental causes.
Coupling The part of the body between the ribs and the pelvis/hindquarters; the loin.
Covering ground The distance traveled by a dog with each stride as it gaits.
Cow-hocked Hocks turning in, accompanied by toeing out of rear feet.
Crabbing Dog moves with its body at an angle to the line of travel. Also called sidewinding.
Crate Portable container used for shipping, transporting, or housing dogs. Also called cage or kennel.
Crest The upper, arched portion of the neck.
Cropping, Crop The cutting or trimming of ear leather to encourage it to stand erect.
Crossbred A dog whose sire and dam are representatives of two different breeds.
Crossing over Unsound gaiting action that starts with twisting elbows and ends with crisscrossing and toeing out. Also called knitting and purling and weaving.
Croup The region of the pelvic girdle, formed by the sacrum and surrounding tissue.
Crown The top part of the head; the topskull.
Cryptorchid The adult whose testicles are abnormally retained in the abdominal cavity. Bilateral cryptorchidism involves both sides; i.e., neither testicle has descended into the scrotum. Unilateral cryptorchidism (also called monorchid) involves one side only; i.e., one testicle is retained or hidden, and one is descended.
Culotte The longer hair on the back of the thighs.
Dam The female parent.
Dentition Forty-two adult teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
Depth of chest An indication of the volume of space for heart and lungs, and commonly referenced to the elbow (i.e., above, at the level of, or below).
Dewclaw An extra claw on the inside of the leg; a rudimentary fifth toe, removed on most breeds.
Dewlap Loose, pendulous skin under the throat and neck.
Diagonals Right front and left rear legs constitute the right diagonal; left front and right rear legs constitute the left diagonal. In the trot, the diagonals move together.
Digit Toe.
Dish-faced A slight concaveness of foreface when viewed in profile.
Dishing Weaving.
Divergent hocks Hocks that turn out. Barrel hocks.
Dock To shorten the tail by cutting.
Dog A male canine or term used to refer generically to all canines, male or female.
Domed Evenly rounded in topskull; curved, not flat.
Dorsal The portion of the dog carried farthest from the substratum (i.e., away from the ground) during normal locomotion or side of the body furthest from the ground.
Double handling The act of someone, other than the handler, getting a dog's attention in the ring to help the dog to show or look better.
Down in pastern Weak or faulty pastern set at an incorrect angle.
Down-faced The muzzle inclining downwards from the skull to the tip of the nose.
Drag A trail prepared by dragging along the ground a bag impregnated (usually) with animal scent.
Drawing Selection by lot of dogs to be run, and in which pairs, in a field trial stake.
Drive A solid thrusting of the hindquarters, denoting sound locomotion.
Drop ear The ear leather folds over; not erect or prick ears.
Dry neck The skin taut, neither loose nor wrinkled.
Dual champion A dog that has won both a conformation and a field trial championship.
Dudley nose Flesh-colored.
Ears The auditory organ, consisting of three regions: inner ear, middle ear, and the most important pinna (or leather), which is supported by cartilage and which affects the expression of all breeds.
Ectropion The condition of the lower eyelid rolling out from the face exposing the eye to irritation.
Elbow The posterior region of the articulation between the arm and forearm.
Elbows out Turning out or off from the body; not held close.
Entire A dog whose reproductive system is complete.
Entropion The turning in of the upper or lower eyelid, potentially resulting in corneal ulceration.
Even bite Meeting of upper and lower incisors with no overlap. Also called level bite.
Ewe neck A neck in which the topline is concave rather than convex.
Exhibitor Person handling a dog at a show.
Expression The general appearance of all the features of the head.
Eyeteeth The upper canines.
Fancier A person especially interested and usually active in some phase of the sport of purebred dogs.
Feathering Longer fringe of hair on ears, legs, tail, or body.
Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) Based in Belgium, FCI licenses international shows in its 72 member countries, including the well-known annual World Show. FCI maintains breed standards for all its 341 recognized breeds. It does not operate a registry but accepts pedigrees for show purposes from the registries of its member countries. FCI has a reciprocal agreement with the AKC, the Canadian Kennel Club, and The Kennel Club (England), which are not members.
Femur Thigh bone. Extends from hip to stifle.
Fibula One of the two bones of the leg (i.e., the lower thigh, second thigh, or lower leg).
Fiddle front Forelegs out at elbows, pasterns close, and feet turned out. French front.
Field trial A competition for certain hound or sporting breeds in which dogs are judged on ability and style in tracking, finding, coursing, or retrieving game.
Fine bone Delicate structure.
Finished Term used to describe when a dog has completed its title requirements.
Flank The side of the body between the last rib and the hip.
Flare A blaze that widens as it approaches the topskull.
Flat-sided Ribs insufficiently rounded as they approach the sternum or breastbone.
Flews Upper lip pendulous, particularly at their inner corners.
Floating rib The last (or 13th rib), which is unattached to the other ribs.
Flush To drive birds from cover, to force them to take flight; to spring.
Forearm The portion of the forelimb between the arm and the wrist.
Foreface The front portion of the skull that articulates with the cranium.
Forequarters The combined front assembly from its uppermost component, the shoulder blade, down to the feet.
Foundation stock The first generation of a particular breed registered with the UKC.
Fringes See feathering.
Front The forepart of the body as viewed head-on; i.e., forelegs, chest, brisket, and shoulder line.
Frontal bones The anterior bones of the cranium forming the forehead.
Furnishings The long hair on the extremities (including head and tail) of certain breeds.
Furrow A slight indentation of median line down the center of the skull to the stop.
Gait The pattern of footsteps at various rates of speed, each pattern distinguished by a particular rhythm and footfall.
Gallop Fastest of dog gaits; has a four-beat rhythm and often an extra period of suspension during which the body is propelled through the air with all four feet off the ground.
Game Hunted wild birds or animals.
Gay tail A tail carried above the horizontal level of the back.
Genealogy Recorded family descent. Pedigree.
Gestation Period The time between mating and birth (it averages 63 days).
Get Offspring.
Goose neck An elongated, tubular-shaped neck. Also called swan neck.
Goose rump Too steep or sloping a croup.
Goose step Accentuated lift of the forelimbs.
Groom To brush, comb, trim, or otherwise make a dog's coat neat.
Gun dog A dog trained to find or pursue game.
Hackles Hairs on neck and back raised involuntarily in fright or anger.
Hackney action A high lifting of the front feet accompanied by flexing of the wrist like that of a Hackney horse.
Handler Person other than an the owner or co-owner, designated by the owner or co-owner of an entered dog to be the handler of, and the person responsible for, the dog at the event.
Hard-mouthed A dog that crushes or renders game unfit for consumption.
Hare foot Foot on which the two center digits are appreciably longer than the outside and inside toes of the foot, and the arching of the toes is less marked, making the foot appear longer overall.
Haunch bones The hip bones.
Haw A third eyelid or membrane on the inside corner of the eye.
Head The front portion of the dog, including the muzzle and the cranium.
Head planes Viewed in profile, the contours of the top portion of the skull from occiput to stop, and the foreface from stop to tip of the nose.
Heat (1) Seasonal period of the female. Estrus, in season. (2) Performance: A competitive running of dogs.
Heel Command to a dog to keep close beside its handler.
Height Vertical measurement from the withers to the ground.
Hie on A command to urge the dog on; used in hunting or in field trials.
High standing Tall and upstanding, with plenty of leg.
Hindquarters Rear assembly of the dog (pelvis, thighs, hocks, and paws).
Hip Dysplasia Abnormal formation of the hip joint.
Hock The collection of bones of the hind leg forming the joint between the second thigh and the metatarsus; the dog's true heel.
Hocking out Spread hocks.
Hocks well let down Hock joints close to the ground.
Honorable scars Scars from injuries suffered as a result of work.
Humerus The bone of the arm (i.e., the upper arm).
In whelp Pregnant.
Inbreeding The mating of two closely related dogs of the same breed.
Incisors The six upper and six lower front teeth between the canines. The point of contact forms the bite.
Interbreeding The breeding of dogs of different breeds.
Iris The colored membrane surrounding the pupil of the eye.
Jowls Flesh of the lips and jaws.
Judge Official approved by the UKC to evaluate dogs at specific UKC events.
Judge's book Book in which the judge records the results from the event being officiated.
Junior Showmanship UKC-sponsored class that evaluates the abilities of the young handler, not the quality of the dog.
Keel The rounded outline of the lower chest.
Kennel Building or enclosure where dogs are kept.
Kink tail A deformity of the caudal vertebrae producing a bent tail.
Kiss marks Orange (orTan) spots on the cheeks and over the eyes.
Kneecap The stifle, with the bone known as the patella.
Knuckling over Faulty structure of wrist joint allowing it to flex forward under the weight of the standing dog.
Lame Irregularity or impairment of locomotion.
Layback The angle of the shoulder blade as compared with the vertical plane viewed from the side.
Lead A strap, cord, or chain attached to the collar or harness, or sometimes simply around the neck, for the purpose of restraining or leading the dog. Also called leash.
Leather The flap of the ear; the outer ear supported by cartilage and surrounding tissue.
Level bite When the front teeth (incisors) of the upper and lower jaws meet exactly edge to edge. Also called pincer bite, equal bite, or even bite.
Level gait Dog moves without rise or fall of withers.
Licensed club Clubs approved to hold events at which championships and/or titles may be won.
Line breeding The practice of mating a dog to a member of an earlier generation of the dog's bloodline.
Lippy Pendulous lips or lips that do not fit tightly.
Litter The puppy or puppies of one whelping.
Liver A deep chocolate brown color.
Loaded shoulders Excessive development of the muscles associated with the shoulder blades.
Loin The region of the body associated with the lumbar portions of the vertebrae column (i.e., behind the ribs and in front of the pelvic girdle).
Loose slung Construction in which the attachment of the muscles at the shoulders is looser than desirable.
Lumbar vertebrae The seven vertebrae of the loin region.
Lumbering An awkward gait.
Luxation Dislocation of an anatomical structure.
Mad dog A rabid dog.
Mandible The bone of the lower jaw.
Mantle Dark-shaded portion of the coat on shoulders, back, and sides.
Manubrium The first sternabra of the chest.
Markings Contrasting color or pattern in a dog's coat.
Mask Dark shading on the foreface.
Match show Usually an informal dog show at which no championship points are awarded.
Mate To breed a dog and bitch.
Measure out Measured height at withers was determined to be outside the limits for that breed as set forth in the breed standard.
Medial Toward the mid line of the dog.
Merle The color is chaacterized by a marbling effect of dark patches against a lighter background of the same color.
Metatarsus Rear pastern.
Microchip A rice-sized device encoded with a unique and unalterable number. The chip is implanted just under the skin in the scruff of the neck and is read by a scanner.
Milk teeth First teeth. Also called baby teeth.
Mismark (1) Coat or color. (2) A dog that has coat coloration or markings not conforming to that which is acceptable for the breed.
Molars The posterior teeth of the dental arcade, with two on each side in the upper jaw and three on each side in the lower jaw in an adult with correct dentition.
Monorchid A dog that has one testicle retained or hidden in its abdominal cavity.
Mottled Pattern of dark roundish blotches on a lighter background.
Move To gait a dog in a pattern prescribed by the judge.
Moving close When the hocks turn in and pasterns drop straight to the ground and move parallel to one another, the dog is moving close in the rear.
Moving straight Term descriptive of balanced gaiting in which angle of inclination begins at the shoulder, or hip joint, and limbs remain relatively straight from these points to the pads of the feet, even as legs flex or extend in reaching or thrusting.
Muzzle band White marking around the muzzle.
National Specialty An event held by the parent club.
Neck well set-on Good neckline, merging gradually with withers, forming a pleasing transition into topline.
Neuter To castrate or spay.
Nose (1) Organ of olfaction. (2) The ability to detect by means of scent.
Oblique shoulders Shoulders well laid back.
Obliquely placed eyes Eyes with outer corners higher than their inner ones.
Occipital protuberance A prominently raised occiput characteristic of some sporting and hound breeds.
Occiput Dorsal, posterior point of the skull.
Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) Organization, established in 1966, that developed and maintains a registry of hip dysplasia in dogs.
Out at the elbows Elbows turning out from the body as opposed to being held close.
Out at the shoulders With shoulder blades loosely attached to the body, leaving the shoulders jutting out in relief and increasing the breadth of the front.
Outcrossing The mating of unrelated individuals of the same breed.
Oval chest Chest deeper than wide.
Overhang A heavy or pronounced brow.
Overreaching Fault in the trot caused by more angulation and drive from behind than in front so that the rear feet are forced to step to one side of the forefeet to avoid interfering or clipping.
Overshot The incisors of the upper jaw projecting beyond the incisors of the lower jaw, thus resulting in a space between the respective inner and outer surfaces.
Padding A compensating action to offset constant concussion when a straight front is subjected to overdrive from the rear; the front feet flip upward in a split-second delaying action to coordinate the stride of the forelegs with the longer stride from behind.
Paddling A gaiting fault, so named for its similarity to the swing and dip of a canoeists paddle. Pinching in at the elbows and shoulder joints causes the front legs to swing forward on a stiff outward arc. Also called tied at the elbows.
Pads Tough, shock-absorbing projections on the underside of the feet. Soles.
Paper foot A flat foot devoid of arch to the toes.
Parent club The national organization designated by the UKC to represent a specific breed.
Parti-color Two or more definite, well-broken colors, one of which must be white.
Pedigree The written record of a dog's genealogy of three generations or more.
Pelvis Hip bones, each consisting of three fused bones: an anterior ilium, a ventral pubis, and a posterior ischium; combined with the sacrum forming the pelvic girdle.
Pen breeding Unwitnessed mating that occurred because the sire and dam were confined to the same area.
PennHIP A method, established in 1993, of evaluating hip dysplasia in dogs by calculating hip laxity.
Piebald Covered with patches of two colors.
Pied Patches of white and another color.
Pigeon-breast A narrow chest with a protruding breastbone.
Pigeon-toed Toes pointing in toward the mid line.
Pincer bite See level bite.
Point The intense, stylized stance of the hunting dog, taken to indicate the presence and position of game.
Pointing breeds Term commonly applied to those sporting breeds that typically point birds.
Points (1) Color on face, ears, legs, and tail. (2) In events, credits toward championship status.
Poke To carry the neck stretched forward in an abnormally low, ungainly position, usually when moving.
Posterior The portion of the dog carried toward the rear during normal locomotion.
Pounding Gaiting fault resultant of a dog's stride being shorter in the front than in the rear; forefeet strike the ground hard before the rear stride is expended.
Premium List Official announcement of the club's event sent to prospective participants. It contains the details of an upcoming event.
Professional handler A person who conditions, trains and exhibits dogs for a fee.
Radius One of the two bones of the forearm.
Ragged Muscles appear ragged rather than smooth.
Rangy Tall, long in body, high on leg, light-framed; gangly.
Reach of front Length of forward stride taken by forelegs.
Rear pastern The metatarsus; the region of the hindquarters between the hock and the foot.
Rib cage The collection of paired ribs, cartilage, sternum, and associated tissue that define the thoracic region.
Ribbed up Long ribs that angle back from the spinal column. A reference to a long rib cage.
Ring tail Carried up and around almost in a circle.
Ringer A substitute for; a dog closely resembling another dog.
Roach back A convex curvature of the back involving thoracic and lumbar regions.
Roan The fine mixing of colored hairs with white hairs.
Rocking horse Both front and rear legs extended out from the body as on an old-fashioned rocking horse.
Rolling gait Swaying, ambling action of the hindquarters when moving.
Roman nose A nose whose bridge is so comparatively high as to form a slightly convex line from forehead to nose tip.
Ruff Thick, longer hair growing around the neck.
Sable Coat color produced by black-tipped hairs on a background of silver, gold, gray, fawn, or brown.
Sacrum The region of the vertebral column that consists of three fused vertebrae that articulate the pelvic girdle.
Saddle Markings in the shape of a saddle over the back.
Saddle back Overlong back, with a dip behind the withers.
Scent The odor left by an animal or bird on the trail (ground-scent) or wafted through the air (air-borne scent).
Scissors bite A bite in which the outer side of the lower incisors touches the inner side of the upper incisors.
Screw tail A naturally short tail twisted in more or less spiral formation.
Second thigh That part of the hindquarters from the stifle to the hock, corresponding to the human shin and calf. Lower thigh, including the tibia and fibula.
Self color One color or whole color except for lighter shadings.
Septum The line extending vertically between the nostrils.
Set up Posed as to make the most of the dog's appearance for the show ring.
Short back See close coupled.
Sickle hocked Inability to straighten the hock joint on the back reach of the hind leg.
Sire The male parent.
Slab-sided Flat ribs with too little spring from the spinal column.
Slew feet Feet turned out.
Sloping shoulder The shoulder blade set obliquely or laid back.
Smooth coat Short hair, close lying.
Snatching hocks A gait fault indicated by a quick outward snatching of the hock as it passes the supporting leg and twists the rear pastern far in beneath the body. The action causes noticeable rocking in the rear quarters.
Snipy A pointed, weak muzzle, lacking breadth and depth.
Snow nose Nose normally solid black, but acquires an area of lighter coloring in winter. Also called winter nose.
Soundness The state of mental and physical health when all organs and faculties are complete and functioning normally, each in its rightful relation to the other.
Spay To remove a bitch's ovaries to prevent conception.
Specialty show Conformation show in which only dogs of an individual breed or group of breeds are eligible to enter.
Splayfoot A flat foot with toes spreading. Open foot, open-toed.
Sporting group Group of dogs who were originally bred to assist the hunter to hunt game birds, both on land and in the water.
Spread Width between the forelegs when accentuated.
Spread hocks Hocks pointing outward.

Spring Cuvature of a dog’s ribs.
Spring of ribs Curvature of ribs for heart and lung capacity.
Square body A dog whose measurements from withers to ground equals that from forechest to rump.
Stack (setup, pose) The posing of a dog in a natural position, often done in the conformation show ring.
Stake Designation of a class; used in field trial competition.
Stance Manner of standing.
Steep Used to denote incorrect angles of articulation. For example, a steep front describes a more upright shoulder placement than is preferred.
Stern Tail.
Sternum A row of eight bones that form the floor of the chest.
Steward Person who is responsible for the smooth running of a specific ring; for example, assembling the classes, distributing armbands, etc., thereby enabling the judge to concentrate on judging the dogs.
Stifle The joint of the hind leg between the thigh and the second thigh. The dog's knee.
Stilted The choppy, up-and-down gait of the straight-hocked dog.
Stop The step up from muzzle to back skull (indentation between the eyes where the nasal bones and cranium meet).
Straight in pastern Little or no bend at the wrist.
Straight shoulders. The shoulder blades rather straight up and down, as opposed to sloping or well laid back.
Straight-hocked Lacking appreciable angulation at the hock joints.
Stud dog A male dog used for breeding purposes.
Stud fee Payment made for the services of a stud dog.
Substance Bone.
Superciliary arches The ridge, projection, or prominence of the frontal bones of the skull over the eyes; the brow; supraorbital ridges.
Swayback Concave curvature of the vertebrae column between the withers and the hipbones.
Symmetry Pleasing balance between all parts of the dog.
Tail-set How the base of the tail is set on the rump.
Thigh The hindquarter from hip to stifle.
Thoracic vertebrae The thirteen vertebrae of the chest with which thirteen pairs of ribs articulate.
Throatiness An excess of loose skin under the throat.
Thumb marks Black spots on the region of the pastern.
Tibia One of the two bones of the leg.
Ticked Small, isolated areas (smaller than spots) of black or colored hairs on a white background. Also called freckles.
Title An award conferred on a dog for completing specific qualifications earned at UKC events or sponsored activities.
Topline The dog's outline from just behind the withers to the tail set.
Trail To hunt by following ground scent.
Tricolor Three colors in the coat: black, white and orange or liver, white and orange.
Trim To groom the coat by stripping, clipping or scissoring.
Trot A rhythmic two-beat diagonal gait in which the feet at diagonal opposite ends of the body strike the ground together; i.e., right hind with left front and left hind with right front.
Trousers Longish hair at the back of both upper and lower thighs.
Trumpet The slight depression or hollow on either side of the skull just behind the orbit or eye socket; the region comparable with the temple in man.
Truncated Cut off.
Tuck-up Characterized by markedly shallower body depth at the loin. Small-waisted.
Tulip ear An ear carried erect with edges curving in and forward.
Turn-up An up-tilted foreface.
Twisting hocks A gaiting fault in which the hock joints twist both ways as they flex or bear weight. Also called rubber hocks.
Type Sum of qualities that distinguish dogs of one breed (breed type) or dogs from one kennel (kennel type) from others.
Ulna One of the two bones of the forearm.
Unbenched Show Conformation show where dogs are not required to be on specific benches for viewing.
Undercoat Dense, soft, short coat concealed by a longer top coat.
Underline The combined contours of the brisket and the abdominal floor.
Undershot The front teeth (incisors) of the lower jaw overlapping or projecting beyond the front teeth of the upper jaw when the mouth is closed.
Unsound A dog incapable of performing the functions for which it was bred.
Upper arm The humerus or bone of the foreleg, between the shoulder blade and the forearm and associated tissues.
Variety A division of a breed. In the Epagneul Breton the varieties are by color: 1. Orange and white and 2. Other Colors.
Vent The anal opening.
Vertebral column The bones of the central axis of the dog posterior to the skull, including cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal vertebrae.
Walk Gaiting pattern in which three legs are in support of the body at all times, each foot lifting from the ground one at a time in regular sequence.
Webbed toes Toes connected by a skin membrane; important for water-retrieving dogs, providing help in swimming.
Weedy  Insufficient amount of bone; light boned.
Well Knit Well put together.
Well let down Having short hocks; refers to short metatarsals.
Wet neck Loose or superfluous skin; with dewlap.
Wheel back A marked arch of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.
Whelp date The date of birth of a litter.
Whelping The act of birthing puppies.
Whiskers Vibrissae or sensory organs (hairs) on the sides of the muzzle.
Wicket Device used to measure the height of a dog at the withers.
Wind To catch the scent of game.
Winging A gaiting fault where one or both front feet twist outward as the limbs swing forward.
Winter nose See snownose.
Wirehair A coat of hard, crisp, wiry texture.
Withers Highest point of a dog's shoulders.
Withholding Decision of a judge not to give an award or placement in a class at any point in the judging process.
Wrinkle Loose, folding skin on forehead and foreface.
Wry mouth Asymmetrical alignment of upper and lower jaws; cross bite.
Zygomatic arch A bony ridge extending posterior (and laterally) from beneath the eye orbit.

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Epagneul Breton Club U.S.A.
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